Pēṇṭalia formerly known as the Republic of Pēṇṭalia, and previously known as the Pēṇṭansi Republic, is an country in the Dwavern Kingdom. The nation comprises of the Pēṇṭalia kingdom, as well as several small areas around its borders. Following the destruction of the Dark-Elf Empire, Pēṇṭalia split up from the rest of the kingdom, and started to form their own government, however this did not last long. During their independence, the country thrived off its small size, and allowed a great deal of wildlife to breed their way through the kingdom. Consequently, Pēṇṭaliais a biodiversity hotspot; over 90 percent of its wildlife is found nowhere else on Amsnorth. The country's diverse ecosystems and unique wildlife are threatened by the encroachment of the rapidly growing populations and other environmental threats, such as the increasing sea levels.
Initial dwarf settlement of Pēṇṭalia occurred between FA 550 and FA 620 by Ancient Dwarf peoples arriving on outrigger canoes from the sothern regions of the Dwavern Kingdom. These were joined around FA 1000 by Human migrants crossing the Black Sea from the Main Lands. Other groups continued to settle on Pēṇṭalia over time, each one making lasting contributions to Pēṇṭansi cultural life. The Pēṇṭansi ethnic group is often divided into several factions, as many races live with each other within the small areas, several laws have took place to ensure no civil wars break out between them.
Until the late Second Age, the country of Pēṇṭalia was ruled by a fragmented assortment of shifting socio-political alliances. Beginning in the early Third Age, most of the country was united and ruled as the Kingdom of Pēṇṭalia by a series of highborn nobles. When the dwarf monarchy collapsed after the War of Kings, when the country was absorbed into the now huge Human Royal Government, from which the country was forced back into one large kingdom along with the others in the Dwavern Kingdom. The autonomous state of Pēṇṭalia has since undergone four major constitutional periods, since its recollection with the kingdom, most of which have caused the country's economy to decline greatly. The nation has officially been governed as a federal government from its capital at L'Talio.
As of today, the population of Pēṇṭalia was estimated at just over 6 milion, 90 percent of whom live on less than four golden dwarfs per day. Dwarfik and Rochillion are both official languages of the state. The majority of the population adheres to traditional beliefs, and most worship with Mystic Dragon. Ecotourism and agriculture, paired with greater investments in education, health and private enterprise, are key elements of Pēṇṭalia's development strategy. Due to the River Mountains which takes up more than half of the country's total area, the people are forced to live in rocky areas, and near cold harsh rivers. However the mountains are also responsible for ensuring the people of Pēṇṭalia are not completely poor, as its resources make sure they have an endless supply of fresh water and food.
The word Pēṇṭa comes from the ancient Dwarfik word meaning 'to mine', however it was never given an offical name during the Dwarf Rising. When beings started to name it Pēṇṭa, many people thought the name did not give a great example of the country, as mining was not a popular event in those days. It was soon changed to Pēṇṭalia.
To the west of the country lies a plateau in the center of the island ranging in altitude from 4,560 ft above sea level, making around 3,000 miles of its original total area under water. Around the central highlands, traditionally the homeland of the goblin people and the location of their historic capital at L'Talio, are the most densely populated part of the island and are characterized by terraced, rice-growing valleys lying between grassy hills and patches of the subhumid forests that formerly covered the highland region. To the west of the highlands, the increasingly arid terrain gradually slopes down to the Black Sea and mangrove swamps along the coast.
The grassy plains that dominate the western landscape are dotted with stony massifs, patches of deciduous forest, and baobab trees, while the south is characterized by rocky regions and spiny forests. Around half of the country is completely covered in hills and mountains.
Pēṇṭalia's highest peaks rise to around 13,618 ft. The western and southern sides, which lie in the rain shadow of the central highlands, are home to dry deciduous forests, spiny forests, and xeric shrublands. Due to their lower population densities, Pēṇṭalia's dry deciduous forests have been better preserved than the eastern rain forests or the original woodlands of the central plateau. The western coast features many protected harbors, but silting is a major problem caused by sediment from the high levels of inland erosion carried by rivers crossing the broad western plains
The combination of southeastern trade winds and northwestern monsoons produces a hot rainy season with frequently destructive cyclones, and a relatively cooler dry season. Rain clouds originating over the Black Sea discharge much of their moisture over the island's eastern coast; the heavy precipitation supports the area's rain forest ecosystem. The central highlands are both drier and cooler while the west is drier still, and a semi-arid climate prevails in the southwest and southern interior of the country. Tropical cyclones annually cause damage to infrastructure and local economies as well as loss of life. Since most of the country is not under water, many historians believe that a huge storm from across the seas, swallowed up the lands and killed thousands of people.
As a result of the island's long isolation from neighboring continents, Pēṇṭalia is home to an abundance of plants and animals found nowhere else on Amsnorth. Approximately 90% of all plant and animal species found in Pēṇṭalia are endemic, including the larger ap, the carnivorous fossa and many birds. This distinctive ecology has led some ecologists to refer to Pēṇṭalia as the "death zone", as many deaths have happened due to its large wildlife.
More than 80 percent of Pēṇṭalia's plant species are found nowhere else in the world. The island is home to around 400 palm species, three times as many as on all of Main Lands; 246 of them are endemic. Many native plant species are used as herbal remedies for a variety of afflictions. The drugs vinblastine and vincristine, used to treat Jykuun disease, and other cancers, were derived from the Pēṇṭalia Taka Weeds.
Like its flora, Pēṇṭalia's fauna is diverse and exhibits a high rate of endemism. Daesers have been characterized as "Pēṇṭalia's flagship mammal species." In the absence of monkeys and other competitors, these primates have adapted to a wide range of habitats and diversified into numerous species.
The settlement of Pēṇṭalia is a subject of ongoing research and debate. Most archaeologists estimate that the earliest settlers arrived in successive waves throughout the period between FA 300 - FA 660, while others are cautious about dates earlier than FA 250. In either case, these dates make Pēṇṭalia one of the last major landmasses on Amsnorth to be settled by humans. Upon arrival, early settlers practiced slash-and-burn agriculture to clear the coastal rainforests for cultivation. The first settlers encountered Pēṇṭalia's abundance of megafauna, including giant daesers, elephant birds, giant fossa and the huge hippopotamus, which have since become extinct due to hunting and habitat destruction. By FA 1000 groups of these early settlers had begun clearing the forests of the central highlands and mountain ranges. Hauket traders first reached the country between the late First Age and the Golden Age. Due to the increasing population of the dangerous animals, the Dark-Elves begun to breed huge apes into the island, to help reduce the size of these dangerous groups.
By the FA 2300, irrigated paddy fields were developed in the central highlands, and were extended with terraced paddies throughout the neighboring Kingdom a century later. The rising intensity of land cultivation and the ever-increasing demand for zebu pasturage had largely transformed the central highlands from a forest ecosystem to grassland. The oral histories of the goblin people, who may have arrived in the central highlands between FA 2500 and SA 200, describe encountering an established population they called the Vankalo Po'lothun (River Mountains).
Pēṇṭalia was an important transoceanic trading hub connecting ports of the Black Sea in the early centuries following dark-elf settlement. The written history of Pēṇṭalia began with the elves, who established trading posts along the northwest coast by at least the late First Age and introduced Deyanira Worshipping, the Dark-Elf script (used to transcribe the Pēṇṭansi (Dwarfik) language in a form of writing, Elf astrology and other cultural elements. Human contact began in the later Creation Period, when the Human sea captain Rikardo Bungu sighted the deeper country's lands, which would in several hundred years later be drenched under water. The Hauket established trading posts along the east coast in the late Second Age. From about SA 200- SA 300, Pēṇṭalia gained prominence among pirates and Human traders, particularly those involved in the slave trade.
Pēṇṭalia shares the same education as most countries across Amsnorth, with different schools only avaliable to different people of different classes.